Freedom, order, and security in a globalized world: Part Two
By Mark Wegierski
The events of 9/11 can highlight certain issues of security today. With the spread of technology around the planet, almost any faction with a grievance can command the resources that can do enormous damage to those that they seek to harm. If a faction is fanatical enough, it will consider the use of biological or nuclear weapons as entirely justified. If they could obtain biological or nuclear weapons, they would probably not hesitate in using them.
So it has been resolved by most Western leaders (with the support of most of their populations) that the most fanatical factions must be harried without quarter.
Some have argued that root-causes such as poverty, or the dispossession of the Palestinian people, are the real reasons for this anti-Western extremism. It could be argued nevertheless that Israel today, despite its massive armed forces, is in an increasingly intractable position. Any concessions it makes are likely to only increase the contempt in which it is held among many Palestinians, among many others in the Middle East, and among a considerable number of Muslims worldwide. At the same time, Israel – although increasingly characterized by some in the Western media as a blowhard regime -- is probably temperamentally unwilling to undertake some truly draconian, punitive measures, and Western opinion is highly unlikely to allow it to do so. What would be the world's reaction if terrorists managed to detonate a nuclear bomb in Tel-Aviv? What would Israel's reaction be?
Indeed, it can be seen that modern technology has intensified a sense of dire threat to world politics.
The West enters the war against terrorism with various advantages and disadvantages. For example, the superb space-based and electronic technology of the West allows for fairly tight monitoring of much of the planet's surface, and of electronic communications planet-wide. Its electronically-based weaponry allows it to soundly defeat any conventional army in the field.
However, many of the ideas prevalent in the West today tend to inhibit a successful prosecution of the war. The Western military effort is clearly hampered by the often debilitating impact of high casualties on the morale of the home societies (a situation much different from that of, for example, World War II), as well as by the imperative of not doing anything that would appear to be contrary to the rules of civilized war. The enemies of the West can act with total ruthlessness and callous disregard for lives (including their own), which could to some extent compensate for their lack of advanced technology.
There has also occurred something which many would consider a disastrous misdeployment of Western strength, in the take-down of Saddam Hussein’s Iraq – which some now see as resulting in a veritable “Sicilian Expedition.” Some have argued that we are seeing the emergence of what has been called a “Fourth Generation War” – which Western armies are not adept in fighting.
It has also been suggested that there may exist a situation somewhat analogous to that of the Roman Empire, where a tremendously wealthy and comparatively populous America is able to enroll only a comparatively small percentage of its population in the military, whereas in some other societies such as Afghanistan, virtually every capable male from the age of sixteen up to very old age, is a warrior. So even minor support for extremist factions in such societies may translate into considerable numbers of armed fighters. And America’s military is itself gargantuan in size, compared to the armed forces of Canada, or those of some Western European countries.
There are also many intrinsic aspects of Western societies today that may weaken them in regard to preventing possible terrorist attacks. Large sectors of Western societies are highly critical of the West -- from a multiculturalist direction -- as well as very strongly concerned about possible human rights and privacy abuses in the prosecution of the war against terror. The West also has fairly open borders, and large immigrant populations in which the terrorists can blend.
However, it is unlikely that there could be the imposition of very tight border controls, immigration-restriction, or massive curtailment of civil liberties in the West today. Although the societal and security contexts may be considerably different – with differing strengths and weaknesses -- it could be argued that today, the West as a whole faces a dilemma similar to that faced by Israel.
To be continued next week.
Mark Wegierski is a Canadian writer and historical researcher.